Mi’gmaq treaties. Angugamgewe’l, translated, means: “adding to our relations. Alternatively, treaties are referred to as: ‘Gisagnutmaqann or Gisiagnutmatimgewe’l.’ These terms, translated, mean: “what we have talked about and agreed to.”
Reconciliation. This is one of the seven principles used by the Mgnigng (tripartite negotiators) in the Gespe’gewa’gi claims process and negotiations. In this context, apajigisagutultimg entails: “Building relationships with us, as Mi’gmaq, will enhance communication [and] bring harmony, healing, and societal well-being.”
One of the seven districts of Mi’gma’gi.
Burnt Church First Nation. Mi’gmaq First Nation reserve in Northumberland County, New-Brunswick province. The reserve is located on Miramichi Bay, near the mouth of the Miramichi River. This is one of the eight communities making up the Seventh District of Gespe’gewa’gi, Mi’gma’gi.
Pabineau First Nation. Mi’gmaq indian community in Gloucester County, North-East of New-Brunswick province. The community is located along the Nepisiguit River. This is one of the eight communities making up the Seventh District of Gespe’gewa’gi, Mi’gma’gi.
Respect. This is one of the seven guiding principles for the Gespe’gewa’gi claims process and negotiations, as agreed upon by the Mgnigng (tripartite negotiators). In this context, gepmite’taqan entails: “Respect is a shared value among us. Understanding our values, knowledge, culture, and traditional practice can promote respect for us as a Nation. We have a special relationship with the territory. We have an interest in spiritual and cultural sites [and] our ceremonial objects (past and today).”
Micmac of Gesgapegiag. Mi’gmaq First Nation community on the south shore of the Gaspesie, in the Quebec province. The community is located at the mouth of the Cascapedia River. Gesgapegiag is one of the three Mi’gmaq communities, located in Québec, which form the Mi’gmawei Mawiomi. This is one of the eight communities making up the Seventh District of Gespe’gewa’gi, Mi’gma’gi
Nation Micmac de Gespeg. Mi’gmaq First Nation based around Fontenelle de Gaspé and Pointe Navarre, near the town of Gaspé in the Gaspe peninsula, Quebec province. The band office and community center are located in Fontenelle de Gaspé, along the Dartmouth River. Gespeg is one of the three Mi’gmaq communities, located in Québec, which form the Mi’gmawei Mawiomi. This is one of the eight communities making up the Seventh District of Gespe’gewa’gi, Mi’gma’gi.
One of the seven districts of Mi’gma’gi.
Title of the Proclamation of the Gespe’gewa’gi Chiefs (Elected Chiefs and Grand Council). The Mi’gmawei Mawiomi issued this proclamation in 2005.
Chiefs’ Council (Elected Chiefs and Grand Council) of the Seventh District of Mi’gma’gi.
One of the seven districts of Mi’gma’gi
Circle of Leaders. The Gigto’qi Niqan’pugultijig is a forum for exchange, reflection, and dialogue among the three parties. This circle is comprised of the elected chiefs (or their nominees) of the Mi’gmawei Mawiomi, a nominee of the Minister for Indian Affairs and Northern Development (Canada), and a nominee of the Ministre responsable des Affaires intergouvernementales canadiennes, des Affaires autochtones, de la Francophonie canadienne, de la Réforme des institutions démocratiques et de l’Accès à l’information (Québec).
What we have agreed upon in the treaty process
(Alternative: Gisigu’g) Elders
The Creator. Also, Mestigisiteget, which means “creator of all”.
Traditional Use Study, which translated means: “the way we used the land”.
Listuguj Mi’gmaq Government. First Nation community on the south shore of the Gaspesie, in the Quebec Province. The community is located along the Restigouche River, at the head of the tide of the Bay of Chaleurs. Listuguj is one of the three Mi’gmaq communities, located in Québec, which form the Mi’gmawei Mawiomi. This is one of the eight communities making up the Seventh District of Gespe’gewa’gi, Mi’gma’gi.
Gulf of Saint Lawrence
Council and/or gathering
Plural of mawiomi
Together as one, blending all our energies into one, or agreeing to work together
Co-existence. This is one of the seven guiding principles for the Gespe’gewa’gi claims process and negotiations, as agreed upon by the Mgnigng (tripartite negotiators). In this context, mawqatmu’ti’gw entails: “Together, we will all seek to co-exist in Peace and Friendship through cooperation and partnership.”
In 2008, the Mgnigng (tripartite negotiators) agreed that the Gespe’gewa’gi claims process and negotiations would be guided by a ‘principle-based approach,’ known as ‘Megite’taqann.’ Megite’taqann, translated, means: “what we hold in high esteem, what we honour.”
Red Bank First Nation. Mi’gmaq First Nation community in Northumberland County, New-Brunswick province. The community is located at the head of the tide of the Miramichi River, This is one of the eight communities making up the Seventh District of Gespe’gewa’gi, Mi’gma’gi.
Circle of Officials. The Mgnigng, the official negotiating team for the Gespe’gewa’gi claim process, is comprised of representatives from the Gespe’gewaq Mi’gmaq, Canada, and Québec.
The national territory of the Mi’gmaq. ADD MORE TEXT
The people of Mi’gma’gi
Mi’gmaw is the Official Language of Gespe’gewa’gi. The Mi’gmawei Mawiomi issued this declaration about the Mi’gmaw language in 2009.
The Mi’gmawei Mawiomi is the name of the political body representing the three Mi’gmaq communities located in Québec. This term, translated, means “gathering of Mi’gmaq people.”
Eel Ground First Nation. Mi’gmaq First Nation community in Northumberland County, New-Brunswick province. Composed by three communitys: Big Hole Tract, Eel Ground and Renous. The community is located along the Miramichi River near the forks of the rivers. This is one of the eight communities making up the Seventh District of Gespe’gewa’gi, Mi’gma’gi.
Acknowledgement. This is one of the seven principles used by the Mgnigng (tripartite negotiators) in the Gespe’gewa’gi claims process and negotiations. In this context, nenmgl entails: “Canada and Québec will acknowledge the Mi’gmaq. We are, and will remain, Mi’gmaq within the societies of Québec and Canada, with our own beliefs and worldview systems Mi’gmaq, Québec and Canada will build on the Peace and Friendship Treaties in the context of today.”
Signed in 2008, the NI is an agreement among the three parties (Mi’gmaq, Canada, and Quebec), which outlines the common objectives and the intent of the three parties to work together and prepare for negotiations. This term, translated, means “the thinking before the decision.”
Our territory. The Mi’gmawei Mawiomi submitted its Statement of Claim document, entitled Nm’tginen, to the governments of Canada and Québec in 2007.
Our Territory: We Have Never Given it Away or Left it. This is the full title of the Statement of Claim document submitted by the Mi’gmawei Mawiomi to the governments of Canada and Québec in 2007.
Advisory circle to the Mi’gmaq Mgnigng. This advisory circle, formerly named the Mgnigng Elders’ Council, is comprised of Mi’gmaq Elders from the three member communities of the Mi’gmawei Mawiomi.
The one is responsible or in charge of something
Burnt Church First Nation. Mi’gmaq First Nation community in Northumberland County, New-Brunswick province. The reserve is located on Miramichi Bay, near the mouth of the Miramichi River. This is one of the eight communities making up the Seventh District of Gespe’gewa’gi, Mi’gma’gi
Burnt Church First Nation. Mi’gmaq First Nation community in Northumberland County, New-Brunswick province. The community is located on Miramichi Bay, near the mouth of the Miramichi River. This is one of the eight communities making up the Seventh District of Gespe’gewa’gi, Mi’gma’gi.
One of the seven districts of Mi’gma’gi
One of the seven districts of Mi’gma’gi
How to live a good and proper life
How we look after one another
This is one of the seven principles used by the Mgnigng (tripartite negotiators) in the Gespe’gewa’gi claims process and negotiation. In this context, ta’n telipgwatu’g entails: “We have a sacred responsibility to all of creation in the territory; we will protect this for generations coming, and we will share our perspective with Québec and Canada. We will exercise governance through agreements with Canada and/or Québec.”
How we distribute things or the process we use to distribute
How we judge or decide together
How we are grateful for or appreciate each other
How to be appreciative or grateful for things
We are all related
Sharing. This is one of the seven principles used by the Mgnigng (tripartite negotiators) in the Gespe’gewa’gi claims process and negotiations,. In this context, tetapu’nasgwa’tatultimg entails: “Sharing through fair and just partnerships will increase our self-sufficiency and our autonomy.”
All of Creation
Mi’gmaq communal well-being. This is one of the seven principles used by the Mgnigng (tripartite negotiators) in the Gespe’gewa’gi claims process and negotiations. In this context, ulo’gnitew entails: “Our communal well-being, as Mi’gmaq, is a shared vision of the participants.”
One of the seven districts of Mi’gma’gi.
do away with or put an end to something; to cancel, call off, overturn, or dissolve something.
person belonging to or existing in a place since prehistory.
to adjust something for a different situation or different circumstances, such as adjusting a plan to take into consideration the needs of other people.
the stage of Comprehensive Land Claim negotiations when the parties reach agreements about the substance of the issues that will form the Final Agreement. The AIP results from a thorough scrutiny of the issues identified in the Framework Agreement (FA) and must contain the most important points to be agreed upon by the parties. The parties must establish a process for ratification of the AIP and set up a mechanism to develop an implementation plan.
to obligate, require or force something. For example, binding traffic law of a place, such as a town or community, means that everyone who drives in that place has to follow it.
a two-party or two-way thing, such as an agreement between two parties.
When the Constitution Act, 1982 was drafted, it contained what is known as the Charter of Rights, all of which is applicable to each and every person in Canada. It sets out the rights which are guaranteed to Canadians and persons legally living in Canada.
to give over, surrender or relinquish to the physical control of something to another, such as ceding land to someone or some government.
a legal process to obtain a right by demand under the law, such as a land claim for property or territory that one believes he/she/they own.
arise and are negotiated in areas of the country, such as Gespe’gewa’gi, where Aboriginal rights and title have not been previously addressed by treaty or through other legal means (such as court cases). These agreements are negotiated to create forward-looking modern-day treaties between Aboriginal claimant groups, Canada and the relevant province or territory. Such claims always include land. While each claim is unique, these agreements usually include such things as land ownership, money, wildlife, harvesting rights, participation in land, resource, water, wildlife and environmental management as well as measures to promote economic development and to protect Aboriginal culture.
the six-stage process to be followed by parties involved in a Comprehensive Land Claim in Canada.
the action of asking or conferring with others about an issue or problem; dialogue and agreement between parties who disagree about something.
the name of the best-known series of “Peace and Friendship” treaties which were signed in 1725/26, 1752, 1760/61, and 1779. These treaties were either civil or military in nature. Britain negotiated such treaties to gain the military allegiance (or at least neutrality) of nations like the Mi’gmaq in case war with the French were to break out again and to re-establish the past good relations with the Mi’gmaq to avoid further confrontations with these original inhabitants of the land.
the act of specifically considering, discussing, analyzing and hopefully reaching a conclusion, such as a jury’s discussions, voting and decision-making during a trial. Deliberation relates to the objective proposed, and to the means of accomplishing that objective, or to both.
an obligation to take some course of action. A legal duty is a requirement under law. A moral duty is a sense of commitment to someone or something. When someone recognizes a duty, that person commits himself/herself to the cause involved without considering the self-interested courses of actions that may have been relevant previously.
a group’s belief in their common descent or ancestry because of similarities of physical type, culture, or customs, or because of memories of colonization and migration. Ethnic identity seems based on a set of elements which also includes historical/cultural knowledge, oral traditions, and mythology. It does not matter whether an objective, actual blood relationship exists among people who share the same ethnic beliefs.
Canadians whose ancestral line comes from Europe.
Centered or focused on Europe or European peoples, especially in relation to historical or cultural influence. A term coined during the period of decolonization in the later 20th century to refer to the practice of viewing the world from a European perspective, with an implied belief, either consciously or subconsciously, in the superiority of European culture.
to inhabit, live in, own, stay or utilize a place to the exclusion of any other person or group.
the stage during Comprehensive Land Claim negotiations when Canada obtains advice from consultants and working groups in order to guarantee that legal, economic, environmental, labour, resources and social concerns are appraised and agreed upon by the parties. All groups are given a public forum to share information with local stakeholders and federal and provincial negotiators and to provide advice on the issues under negotiation. There should be no need at this stage to renegotiate the terms and conditions agreed to in the Agreement-in-Principle (AIP).
describes the main areas that will be talked about in depth during the later stages of claim negotiations in a Comprehensive Land Claim.
looked at or considered as a whole thing rather than in many separate parts; for example, having a holistic view of nature means viewing all of nature as one thing, not many unconnected things.
Canadian federal legislation, first passed in 1876 and amended numerous times since. The Indian Act sets out certain federal government obligations to “Indians” and regulates the management of “Indian” reserve lands.
to violate a right or privilege or to break it. Infringement is violating, breaking, disobeying or going against a rule, a law, or an agreement. In some instances infringing on a place means trespassing on it.
pre-existing, hereditary or natural.
the body of rules that nations generally recognize as binding in their conduct toward one another. Multi-party international law is often made through international organizations such as the U.N. International law is NOT the body of laws of a given country that govern the domestic internal workings of that country, such as the law of Canada, France or the United States.
secure from destruction, intact, and unable to be altered, violated or conquered.
unable to be fixed; irreversible and beyond repair.
a group’s belief that they have a right to use, develop and enlarge their preferred common language or system of words for communication, including its oral traditions and oral mythology, within the context of a larger surrounding culture.
to discuss, debate, or confer about something. Negotiations usually are one or more meetings where issues are discussed and hopefully brought to mutual agreement by the parties involved.
the language that is recognized as the legal language or system of words for communication in a given jurisdiction such as a nation.
claims which do not meet the strict acceptance criteria of either a “Comprehensive Land Claim” or a “Specific Claim” but which nonetheless have merit. A number of such claims have been accepted by Canada as requiring resolution through negotiation.
following the arrival of Europeans, the Mi’gmaq of Atlantic Canada signed a series of historically recognized treaties with British officials. As a group, these treaties are referred to as “peace and friendship treaties” because the parties were seeking agreement to live in peace and maintain friendly relations with the original inhabitants of the land, the Mi’gmaq.
useful information or directions that seek to explain or outline or clarify the originator’s thinking about its regulations or rules. Policy guidance from a government agency is not a law or a regulation but a way for government to convey its suggested means or methods for complying with a regulation or law.
in a land claim, the area or region that is being claimed at the present time, as opposed to other areas that may be claimed in a later action.
organizations not part of a government. Although it usually refers to private businesses and industry, the term sometimes is used to describe organizations that are non-governmental in nature but not commercial ventures, such as the Canadian Red Cross.
spiritual values that may be demonstrated through sacred ceremonies and may be remembered and passed down orally or preserved in written form as honoured scriptures.
this is a system in Canada which, under the Indian Act, sets out a “tract of land, the legal title to which is vested in Her Majesty, that has been set apart by Her Majesty for the use and benefit of a band.” The Act also specifies that, under this system, land reserved for the use and benefit of a band which is not vested in the Crown is also subject to the Indian Act. The Reserve System was first established by the legislature of Lower Canada in 1853 and incorporated into the first version of the Indian Act.
a supply of something, either material or non-material, that has value to someone or some group. Resources can be money, property, cultural or artistic items, talents, money, or something occurring naturally such as forests, animals, or minerals.
a legally, morally, or traditionally just and obligatory claim to something.
in a land claim, the area or region that is not being claimed at the present time but which may be claimed in a later action.
independence, freedom, the ability to exercise one’s rights and privileges as one sees fit, and the ability to choose one’s own actions and future.
if certain issues arise during negotiations, and the negotiating parties wish to separate those issues from the main points of their negotiations, they can agree mutually to pull out those separate issues and deal with them “on the side” in order to make the main process flow more smoothly.
self-governed. A nation which claims sovereignty is in complete control of its assets, people, lands, laws, etc. and is recognized by other nations as such.
claims arising from alleged non-fulfillment of Indian treaties and other lawful obligations, or the improper administration of lands and other assets under the Indian Act or formal agreements.
a formally prepared statement describing the claim that includes supporting materials, identification of the Aboriginal claimant group, and the general geographic area of its traditional territory. According to policy guidance, a well-supported claim includes a clear articulation of the claim, evidence supporting it, indexes to documents and records, an enumeration of the bands involved, details of the population and geographic area of the claimant group, and a plan for addressing any potential disputes arising from overlapping claims with neighbouring Aboriginal groups.
conserving, preserving, managing, protecting, or safeguarding something such as a natural resource. Exactly the opposite of destroying, wasting, neglecting, or using up.
anything that provides a ground or basis for a claim.
an alliance, agreement, settlement or understanding entered into between nations.
a three-party or three-way thing, such as an agreement between three parties.
as part of an attempt to settle a dispute or troublesome issue, the parties can make statements without prejudice. When this is done, the contents of their statements cannot be put into evidence later on without the consent of all parties. So, if statements made without prejudice relate to an offer or a compromise on an issue, then such statements cannot be used later on as evidence that they were admissions or final offers of anything.
Please be advised that the Mi’gmaq language uses a different form of typography depending on the District in Mi’gmagi. We are using the Gespe’gewa’gi typography.
the definitions above are provided for laypersons for their educational purposes only and should not be considered to be legal advice or the offering of legal assistance in any way.